Science psychology – Populer Psikoloji http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/ Thu, 13 Jan 2022 06:11:14 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon-2021-07-01T204530.168-150x150.png Science psychology – Populer Psikoloji http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/ 32 32 The connection between two key parts of the brain plays a role in neuropsychiatric brain disorders http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/the-connection-between-two-key-parts-of-the-brain-plays-a-role-in-neuropsychiatric-brain-disorders/ Thu, 13 Jan 2022 01:44:00 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/the-connection-between-two-key-parts-of-the-brain-plays-a-role-in-neuropsychiatric-brain-disorders/ Florida State University researchers have identified a link between two key parts of the brain that play an important role in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and depression. Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience Wen Li and PhD Candidate in Psychology Kevin Clancy found that stimulating the brain system that deals […]]]>

Florida State University researchers have identified a link between two key parts of the brain that play an important role in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and depression.

Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience Wen Li and PhD Candidate in Psychology Kevin Clancy found that stimulating the brain system that deals with attention and imagery also improves the efficiency of what is called network in default mode, a key element of the functional organization of the brain. The default mode network is disrupted in a host of neurological disorders.

Their study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

This research has important implications for so many different scientific disciplines. From a cognitive neuroscience perspective, the brain activity we targeted is involved in a range of fundamental human mental faculties, such as consciousness, self-awareness, attention and memory. Our ability to directly manipulate this brain activity could lead to a better understanding of how these mental processes take place. From a clinical perspective, disruption of this neural activity has been implicated in the development and maintenance of various serious neuropsychiatric disorders.”

Kevin Clancy, PhD student in psychology

Brain function is organized by intrinsic inter-regional connectivity, that is, the way different regions of the brain interact, and inter-neuronal synchrony, which is the simultaneous activation of neurons in multiple areas of the brain. brain. These processes are represented by the brain’s default mode network and alpha – oscillations; or neural activity associated with attention and imagery -; and these systems are mechanically linked.

“Our results showed that transcranial stimulation of alpha oscillations can help regulate and improve network efficiency in default mode,” Li said. “The fact that this stimulation upregulates the network in default mode highlights an effective, non-invasive therapy to normalize network functioning in neuropsychiatric disorders.”

This work was made possible through the use of Florida State University’s Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility. The state-of-the-art neuroimaging facility fosters cutting-edge research and collaboration between the fields of neuroscience, psychology, medicine, and engineering.

Li and Clancy used the main components of the fMRI setup, including a Siemens Prisma scanner and a high-density EEG/ERP system, which stands for electroencephalography and event-related potential. EEG is a method that records the electrical activity of a brain through sensors on an individual’s scalp that detect brain activity underneath, and ERP is the measured brain response resulting from a stimulus. These methods help capture neural activity related to sensory and cognitive processes, and Li and Clancy have further integrated transcranial stimulation with MRI-EEG recordings.

Delivering transcranial stimulation while simultaneously measuring brain activity and response to stimulation is a tricky process, as participants must be kept comfortable in the scanner while attached to various electrodes and sensors.

“Achieving this kind of technical sophistication and rigor in simultaneous recordings is a great achievement. Although these are effective techniques on their own, the study would lose power if these methods were not conducted at the same time” , said Li, who played a major role in designing and implementing this powerful protocol at the MRI facility. “Kevin was resourceful in how he set up the electrodes for stimulation and the cap for recordings to keep participants comfortable.”

The technology used in this research acts directly on the brain, and this neuromodulation technique is cost-effective on an outpatient or outpatient basis and does not require extensive training to administer. Clancy hopes this work can help bridge community mental health and interventional psychiatry to facilitate accessibility to high-quality, evidence-based mental health treatment.

“I am currently writing grant applications for new research in this area – we want to apply these findings to post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain,” Li said. “Eventually, we hope to study the effect of this link about Alzheimer’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Source:

Journal reference:

Clancy, K.J. et al. (2022) Transcranial stimulation of alpha oscillations upregulates the default mode network. PNAS. doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2110868119.

]]>
NCERT 2022 recruitment for 54 consultant, office assistant and other positions, apply @ ncert.nic.in http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/ncert-2022-recruitment-for-54-consultant-office-assistant-and-other-positions-apply-ncert-nic-in/ Tue, 11 Jan 2022 10:09:37 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/ncert-2022-recruitment-for-54-consultant-office-assistant-and-other-positions-apply-ncert-nic-in/ NCERT Recruitment 2022 A notification has been posted on ncert.nic.in for 54 vacancies for consultant, office assistant and other details. Created on: Jan 11, 2022 15:39 IST NCERT Recruitment 2022 NCERT 2022 recruitment: The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) issued a notification of recruitment for the position of Senior Consultant (Academic), Consultant […]]]>

NCERT Recruitment 2022 A notification has been posted on ncert.nic.in for 54 vacancies for consultant, office assistant and other details.

Created on: Jan 11, 2022 15:39 IST

NCERT Recruitment 2022

NCERT 2022 recruitment: The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) issued a notification of recruitment for the position of Senior Consultant (Academic), Consultant (Academic), Project Associate / Investigative Associate / Senior Research Associate, Fellow junior project manager, office assistant and accountant. Interested candidates can submit their application via the online mode no later than January 15, 2022.

Important appointments:

  • Deadline for submitting online applications: January 15, 2022

NCERT Recruitment 2022 Job Vacancy Details

  • Senior Consultant (Academic) – 5 Positions
  • Consultant (Academic) – 29 Positions
  • Project associate – 5 positions
  • Survey Associate / Senior Research Associate – 5 positions
  • Junior project manager – 12 positions
  • Office assistant – 1 position
  • Accountant – 1 Position

NCERT 2022 recruitment eligibility criteria
Qualification for education:

  • Senior Consultant (Academic) – Graduate degree in Science / Statistics / Mathematics / Business / Social Sciences / Humanities / Education / Psychology / Computer Science from a recognized university / institute with a minimum of 55% marks or an equivalent mark.
  • Consultant (academic) – Graduate degree in Science / Statistics / Mathematics / Business / Social Sciences / Humanities / Education / Psychology / Computer Science from a recognized university / institute with a minimum of 55% marks or an equivalent mark.
  • Project Associate / Investigative Associate / Senior Research Associate – – Graduate degree in Statistics / Mathematics / Business / Economics / Education from a recognized university / institute with a minimum of 55% marks or equivalent mark.
  • Junior Project Fellow – Graduate degree in Science / Statistics / Mathematics / Business / Social Sciences / Humanities / Education / Psychology / Computer Science / from a recognized university / institute with a minimum of 55% marks or an equivalent mark.
  • Office assistant, accountant – Graduated in any discipline.

Download the NCERT 2022 recruitment notification

NCERT 2022 Recruitment Selection Criteria

Only shortlisted candidates will be invited for an online / face-to-face interview, to be determined at a later date. The maintenance notice will be sent to the email id submitted in the google form.

How to apply for NCERT 2022 recruitment?

Interested candidates can apply online through the Google form provided in the hypertext PDF. Applications can be submitted no later than January 15, 2022.

Play Jagran

गेम्स खेलें और जीतें एक लाख रुपए तक कैश

]]>
Feeling helpless in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic? 4 principles of self-determination can help you regain control http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/feeling-helpless-in-the-face-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-4-principles-of-self-determination-can-help-you-regain-control/ Sun, 09 Jan 2022 13:14:45 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/feeling-helpless-in-the-face-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-4-principles-of-self-determination-can-help-you-regain-control/ The Omicron wave seemed to come like a rising tide – slowly, then suddenly, in all directions and all at the same time. Within the health system, skeleton crews face impossible workloads and moral distress. Apart from that people feel the weight of things like deferred care, deprioritized essential workers, online learning and doomscrolling. People […]]]>

The Omicron wave seemed to come like a rising tide – slowly, then suddenly, in all directions and all at the same time. Within the health system, skeleton crews face impossible workloads and moral distress.

Apart from that people feel the weight of things like deferred care, deprioritized essential workers, online learning and doomscrolling. People are sick not only with COVID-19, but also with isolation, inequality and polarization.

It should therefore come as no surprise that recent announcements of closed schools and restrictions renewed make some people think it’s just too hard to maintain.

But there is a way to get through the difficult stages of the pandemic. It is possible to counter impotence and empowerment by creating a sense of purpose and community amid the confusion of COVID-19.

Self-determination

As a researcher of social prescription – using health care visits as a starting point to reconnect people with community health promotion services – I want to share some steps we can all take today to get back to the basics of promotion health, using self-determination to help exert more control over our own individual and shared experiences.

Self-determination is an approach widely used in health promotion which arises from two distinct research bodies: in psychology, on how we build well-being in our own lives, and in political science, on how we together govern the things that are most important to us.

The idea, in both traditions, is that by applying only four principles to individual and collective levels, people can increase control and improve the conditions of their health and well-being.

Autonomy

When it feels like so much control has been taken away, making a small decision can help someone rediscover their autonomy.
THE CANADIAN PRESS / Nathan Denette

You first have to regain autonomy: the ability to make decisions for yourself. When you feel like so much control has been taken away from you, making a small decision on your own can help you move from worrying about ‘what’s happening to me’ into action. on “what matters to me”.

In social prescribing, participants don’t wait for someone else to come up with a treatment plan. They express their own wellness priorities and are supported to better control their own health goals.

It can start with something as small, but healthy, like pick up a drawing pencil where to go for a walk in nature, or something more intensive like access housing assistance Where volunteer with others in your community.

Politically and at the community level, fostering self-reliance can be like ensuring that people have support to do so. local economic decisions, supporting local public health and community organizations, or by making sure vaccination campaign is both scientifically accurate and culturally significant.

Skill

A couple walk past an inspiring and colorful mural that reads 'Keep Going'
In times of collective crisis, people may feel helpless in the face of forces greater than themselves.
THE CANADIAN PRESS / Frank Gunn

Next, we need to value competence: our ability to influence outcomes and to show ourselves and others what we are capable of.

In times of collective crisis, people may feel helpless in the face of forces greater than themselves. In social prescribing, participants are supported to reconnect with their own power, focusing less on what they cannot do and more on what they can, by do something they’re good at.

For communities, valuing competence may mean adopting a strengths-based approach or asset-based approach that recognizes the unique capacity and expertise within a community, such as relationships of trust, local ecological knowledge and an unknown training – rather than focusing on Community deficits.

Charity

Person seen from behind takes photo of mural of white dove dropping vials of COVID-19 vaccine
Regardless of our own constellations of ability, health, and privilege, we all have something to give that can positively impact others.
(AP Photo / Gregorio Borgia)

The pursuit of beneficence is closely linked to the feeling of competence: the feeling of having a positive impact on others. There is a demonstrable the glow of the donor who has just helped; whatever the individual constellations of ability, health and privilege, everyone has something to give.

In social prescribing, participants who express a desire to give back are supported to take the lead in volunteering to help others or designing and implementing new programs and services. At a broader level, fostering collective beneficence might look like prosocial communication approaches that remind us of how COVID-19 precautions help others, or opportunities to help others access vaccines and supports.

Membership

A cyclist walks past a painted mural depicting cartoon signs of people wearing face masks talking on the phone, checking out neighbors during the pandemic.
Feelings of loneliness and social isolation have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
(AP Photo / Eric Gay)

Finally, we must value the relationship: the feeling of connection and belonging with others and the world around us. Feelings of loneliness and social isolation increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with health impacts and well-being.

In social prescribing, participants have the time and space to develop relationships: with a community connector who listens, with friends and family, or with other participants who may have something in common.

Collectively and politically, recognizing kinship can be like supporting policies that welcome people both as workers and caregivers, ensuring the shared protection of global vaccine equity or act on ecological and climatic pressures that increase the risk of zoonotic diseases.

Self-determination means deciding for ourselves, feeling proud of a job well done, giving to others and feeling like you belong. Social prescription cannot be everything for everyone, but what it has shown is that individual and collective well-being, psychological and political self-determination are deeply linked.

Starting with a phone call, a walk in the park, a poem, or a gift makes a difference and can help kick-start the ability to get through these tough times – together.


Source link

]]>
An expert shares the science and psychology of love http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/an-expert-shares-the-science-and-psychology-of-love/ Fri, 07 Jan 2022 21:12:40 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/an-expert-shares-the-science-and-psychology-of-love/ In a recent interview with Form, researcher in human behavior Helene fisher delves into a subject that many would have asked the question: what is the science behind love? Scientifically, love in the brain is the act of dopamine, a natural stimulant, being produced in the ventral tegmental area. Ironically, this “little brain factory,” as […]]]>

In a recent interview with Form, researcher in human behavior Helene fisher delves into a subject that many would have asked the question: what is the science behind love?

Scientifically, love in the brain is the act of dopamine, a natural stimulant, being produced in the ventral tegmental area. Ironically, this “little brain factory,” as Fisher likes to call it, is right next to the areas that process basic urges like thirst and hunger.

The human brain is literally trying to “find a mate, fall head over heels in love, and send your DNA in the next day,” says Fisher. There is no real timeline of how long love takes to form, as love varies from person to person, even from culture to culture.

But considering the fact that love works the same as functions like hunger, it makes sense that people might experience intense love like love at first sight. Compared to how quickly humans can switch from one emotion to another, this begs the question: why have people ever questioned the ability to fall so quickly?

Ultimately, Fisher thinks falling in love is a lot easier than people think.

For example, sex notoriously propels this “factory” into high gear by stimulating the genitals. It produces both dopamine and the love hormone, oxytocin in the brain. Basically good sex will double your chances of getting the sensations, so be careful.

If falling in love is the goal, Fisher has some tips to help make the process easier. Research has found that new experiences can increase the amount of dopamine produced by the brain. It can trigger the feeling of love. So if the goal is love, try going on a new adventure with your potential partner, or double down and add bombshell sex to the equation.


Source link

]]>
Purdue University Global to Provide Educational Opportunities at Kearney Regional Medical Center with Tuition Fee Reduction http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/purdue-university-global-to-provide-educational-opportunities-at-kearney-regional-medical-center-with-tuition-fee-reduction/ Wed, 05 Jan 2022 16:50:57 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/purdue-university-global-to-provide-educational-opportunities-at-kearney-regional-medical-center-with-tuition-fee-reduction/ WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – A partnership with Purdue World University provide world-class educational opportunities for Kearney Regional Medical Center staff and their family members with reduced tuition fees. “Purdue University Global is committed to helping our healthcare partners like Kearney Regional Medical Center encourage the educational and professional growth of their staff,” said Melissa Burdi, […]]]>

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – A partnership with Purdue World University provide world-class educational opportunities for Kearney Regional Medical Center staff and their family members with reduced tuition fees.

“Purdue University Global is committed to helping our healthcare partners like Kearney Regional Medical Center encourage the educational and professional growth of their staff,” said Melissa Burdi, Purdue Global vice president and dean of the School of Nursing. “As a great regional center in Central Nebraska, we know the importance of online college programs for staff and family members, and we are committed to providing excellent academic training at KRMC.”

the Purdue Global School of Nursing offers an Associate’s Degree Program, RN-BSN, six Master of Science in Nursing programs and Doctorate in Nursing programs. Additional offerings from Purdue Global include business, criminal justice, social services, and psychology, among others. Partnership does not include Concord Law School, Aviation or Excel Track programs.

Kearney Regional Medical Center staff and immediate family members (spouse, domestic partner, children, siblings and parents) will receive a 20% reduction in tuition fees for undergraduate programs, 14% for graduate programs and 10% for doctoral programs.

“We are delighted to partner with Purdue Global to provide our staff and their families an opportunity to grow professionally with a high quality education and to create talented professionals in many facets of healthcare and other industries. flourishing, ”said Sara Fecht, human resources company. partner of Kearney Regional Medical Center.

Purdue Global has similar partnerships with Continuum Pediatric Nursing Services, York (Nebraska) General, Columbus (Nebraska) Community Hospital, UnityPoint Health – Cedar Rapids, the Arizona Wellness Council and Quality Living, Inc.

About Purdue University Global

Purdue University Global offers personalized online education tailored to the unique needs of adults who have work or life experience beyond the classroom, enabling them to develop essential academic and professional skills with the support and flexibility that they need to achieve their career goals. It offers personalized pathways for students to earn an associate, bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree, depending on their work experience, desired pace, military service, previous college credit and other considerations, no matter where they are in their life journey. Purdue Global is a Higher Learning Commission accredited, public, nonprofit university. It is affiliated with the flagship institution of Purdue University, a leading public research university located in West Lafayette, Indiana. Purdue University also operates regional campuses in Fort Wayne and northwest Indiana, as well as science, engineering, and technology students at the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) campus. For more information visit purdueglobal.edu.

About Kearney Regional Medical Center

The Kearney Regional Medical Center is a full-service acute care hospital located in the growing community of Kearney, Nebraska. As the region’s first physician-guided medical center, KRMC is run by a physician-led board of directors. This leadership model enables the organization to adapt quickly to the ever-changing healthcare environment and the needs of its community. Since opening in 2014, the state-of-the-art facility has grown to include a full-service medical clinic, 93-bed surgical and outpatient center, 24-hour emergency room, intensive care, a maternity care center and a level II neonatal intensive care unit. KRMC’s team of physicians is second to none, many having served the Kearney area for generations. Specialties include general and interventional cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, etc.

Media Contact, Purdue Global: Tom Schott, 765-427-1721, tschott@purdue.edu

Media contact, Kearney Regional: Amanda Polacek, apolacek@kearneyregional.com

Sources: Melissa Burdi

Sara fecht


Source link

]]>
Choline in pregnancy impacts sustained attention in children – sciencedaily http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/choline-in-pregnancy-impacts-sustained-attention-in-children-sciencedaily/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 20:13:40 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/choline-in-pregnancy-impacts-sustained-attention-in-children-sciencedaily/ Seven-year-olds did better at a difficult task requiring sustained attention if their mothers consumed twice the recommended amount of choline during their pregnancy, according to a new Cornell study. The study, which compared these children to those whose mothers consumed the recommended amount of choline, suggests that the recommended intake of choline for pregnant women […]]]>

Seven-year-olds did better at a difficult task requiring sustained attention if their mothers consumed twice the recommended amount of choline during their pregnancy, according to a new Cornell study.

The study, which compared these children to those whose mothers consumed the recommended amount of choline, suggests that the recommended intake of choline for pregnant women does not fully meet the needs of the fetal brain.

“Our results suggest population-wide benefits of adding choline to a standard prenatal vitamin regimen,” said Barbara Strupp, professor in the Division of Nutritional Sciences (DNS) and the Department of Psychology, and co-lead author of the study, “Prenatal Choline Supplementation Improves Sustained Childhood Attention: A Seven-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial,” published Dec. 28 in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

The study’s first author is Charlotte Bahnfleth, Ph.D. ’19, a former graduate student of the Strupp Lab. The co-lead author is Richard Canfield, Senior DNS Research Associate. Marie Caudill, DNS professor, was also a co-author.

Choline – found in egg yolks, lean red meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and cruciferous vegetables – is missing from most prenatal vitamins, and over 90% of pregnant women consume less than the recommended amount.

Decades of research using rodent models have shown that adding extra choline to the maternal diet produces long-term cognitive benefits for offspring. In addition to improving the attention and memory of the offspring throughout life, maternal choline supplementation in rodents has been shown to be neuroprotective for the offspring by alleviating cognitive difficulties caused by prenatal stress, the fetal exposure to alcohol, autism, epilepsy, Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease.

In the Cornell study, all women ate a diet prepared with a specified amount of choline throughout the third trimester of pregnancy. Half of these women consumed 480 mg of choline per day, slightly above the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) level of 450 mg / day. The other half consumed a total intake of 930 mg of choline per day, about double the level of AI.

When tested at the age of 7, children of women in the 480 mg / day group showed a decrease in precision from start to finish of a sustained attention task, while those in the 930 mg / day group maintained a high level of precision throughout the task. These findings parallel the effects of maternal choline supplementation and deprivation in rodents, using a closely analogous sustained attention task.

“By demonstrating that maternal choline supplementation in humans produces attentional benefits for offspring similar to those seen in animals,” said Strupp, “our results suggest that the full range of cognitive and neuroprotective benefits demonstrated in rodents can also be seen in humans. “

The new findings build on a previous study by this research group describing benefits during infancy. This study demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation improved the speed of information processing throughout the first year of life in these same children.

Few studies in humans have evaluated the effect of maternal choline supplementation, and this is the first study to follow children up to school age.

“By showing that the beneficial effects of prenatal supplementation last through childhood, these findings illustrate the role of prenatal choline in programming cognitive development in children,” Canfield said. “And because the ability to maintain attention in difficult situations is essential to almost all areas of cognitive performance, the cumulative impact of improved sustained attention is likely to be substantial.”

Current recommendations – including those for pregnant women – were established in 1998 and are based on the amount of choline needed to prevent liver dysfunction in men, studies have shown.

This research was funded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, part of the United States Department of Agriculture, and Balchem ​​Corp. Bahnfleth was funded by a NICHD internship and the Egg Nutrition Center Young Investigator Research Award for Early Exploration.

Source of the story:

Materials provided by Cornell University. Original written by Robin Roger. Note: Content can be changed for style and length.


Source link

]]>
Is the stigma related to mental health decreasing? It is complicated http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/is-the-stigma-related-to-mental-health-decreasing-it-is-complicated/ Sat, 01 Jan 2022 21:22:52 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/is-the-stigma-related-to-mental-health-decreasing-it-is-complicated/ The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines stigma as “a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something … a mark of shame or discredit”. Borrowed from Latin, it ultimately comes from the Greek “stizein” which means “tattoo” and refers to the marks used on slaves and criminals in […]]]>

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines stigma as “a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something … a mark of shame or discredit”. Borrowed from Latin, it ultimately comes from the Greek “stizein” which means “tattoo” and refers to the marks used on slaves and criminals in ancient Greece.

Throughout history, people with mental and behavioral disorders have been routinely blamed, ostracized, isolated, imprisoned, tortured or killed. And while our treatment and attitudes toward mental illness have improved dramatically in the 20th and 21st centuries, the stigma associated with mental health has not gone away. A 2016 research review by University of Zurich psychologist Wulf Rössler concluded: “There is no country, society or culture where people with mental illness have the same societal value as people without mental illness.”

When mental health issues are stigmatized, those who face them are doomed to struggle not only with the disorder, but also with the social stigma and rejection that comes with it. The effects of stigma are deep both personally and socially, as they can force people to hide or deny their problems, to refrain from asking for help and to blame themselves (AKA self-stigma).

Source: teeveesee for Pixabay

A systematic 2010 review Literature by Jessica Sharac of King’s College London and colleagues reviewed 27 studies on stigma and its effects, concluding: “Stigma / discrimination related to mental illness has negatively impacted employment, income, public views on resource allocation and health care costs ”.

Columbia University stigma researchers Bruce Link and Jo Phelan Okay: “Stigma probably has a dramatic impact on the distribution of life chances in areas such as income, housing, crime, health and life itself.

Lay people may have a hunch that stigma is one thing – a negative and prejudicial attitude about something. Yet research suggests that stigma, like almost everything else in life, is a complex construct.

Contemporary research has tended to divide the construction of stigma into three distinct elements. Like Graham Thornicroft of King’s College London and his colleagues Explain, it is about “a lack of knowledge (ignorance), negative attitudes (prejudices) and behaviors which disadvantage the stigmatized person (discrimination)”

In other words, stigma involves a cognitive component (ignorant beliefs), an emotional component (negative feelings of aversion, disgust, fear), and a behavioral component (acting to ostracize and oppress the stigmatized person or group) .

Bruce Link and Jo Phelan (2001) offers a model in which a stigma is defined by the process of convergence between five distinctive components:

The first element is to distinguish and label human differences. The second involves the process by which “dominant cultural beliefs bind people labeled with undesirable characteristics – with negative stereotypes”. The third element occurs when “tagged people are put into separate categories in order to achieve some degree of separation between“ us ”and“ them ”. The fourth component labeled people “experience loss of status and discrimination which leads to unequal outcomes”.

Finally, the fifth element is access to social, economic and political power, which allows “the separation of those labeled into distinct categories and the full execution of disapproval, rejection, exclusion and discrimination”. In other words, “When people have an interest in keeping others out, inside or out, stigma is a resource that enables them to achieve the ends they desire.”

The multidimensional structure of stigma makes plausible the prediction that different aspects of stigma can function independently of each other. For example, we may come to fear people with depression less, but still ignorantly believe that their depression is their fault. Likewise, a stigmatized group can simultaneously gain social status and incur an increase in prejudice and hostility. If so, then successfully tackling one component of stigma may not be enough to reduce its overall negative effects.

A recent (2021) to study by sociologist Bernice Pescosolido of Indiana University and colleagues provides an illustration of this complexity. The authors used data from face-to-face interviews conducted three times between 1996 and 2018 with a representative sample of over 4,000 American adults.

Participants were asked to respond to one of three vignettes showing people who met the DSM diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence or a control case (showing a person struggling with simple everyday problems). Participants then answered questions about the underlying causes (attributions) as well as the likelihood of violence (danger to others) and rejection (desire for social distancing) towards the person in the vignette.

The results showed a mixed trend. The period between 1996-2006 saw an increase in the approval of genetic assignments for schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. Over the last period (2006-2018), the desire for social distancing has decreased for depression in areas such as work, socialization, friendship, and marriage. At the same time, regressive changes were also observed. In 2018, participants viewed people with schizophrenia as more dangerous and were more likely to attribute alcoholism to a bad temper than 1996 participants.

The researchers found that demographic factors such as race and ethnicity, gender, and education level could not predict significant differences in overall time trends. The demographic factor that seems to have the most influence on stigma is age. “Older people in each period were significantly more reluctant for the person in the sticker to marry into the family.”

The researchers identified five robust patterns in the data:

First of all, they concluded that the turn of the century (1996-2006) “saw a substantial increase in public acceptance of the biomedical causes of mental illness”. This evolution towards a greater acceptance of scientific data has not, however, translated into a decrease in social rejection (desire for distance).

Second, they concluded that the recent period of investigation (2006-2018) documented the first significant and substantial decrease in stigma for major depression, although similar decreases were not found for schizophrenia or drug dependence. the alcohol.

Third, the researchers found that participants’ demographics “offered little information about stigma, in general, or about observed decreases in depression.” Thinking and attitudes towards depression seem to have changed on all levels.

Fourth, age is predictably important to stigma. The authors note: “Change over time may be associated with age as a factor of conservation, a cohort process in which older, more conservative individuals are replaced by younger, more liberal US residents.” .

Fifth, while the results for depression were encouraging, other results were disappointing. “For schizophrenia, there has been a slow shift towards a greater belief in dangerousness… the increase has been substantial and relatively large over the entire period (around 13 percent). When it comes to alcohol addiction, the results are equally mixed. “While there has been an increase in the selection of alcohol addiction as a mental illness with chemical and genetic roots, the problem has also been trivialized as highs and lows. observed a return to a moral attribution of bad character in the first period which remains stable in the second period.

The authors conclude on an optimistic note, observing that their findings suggest that stigma may change and that scientific literacy has increased among American citizens. And yet, they note: “what the public believes and knows often aligns with science … but may not influence their attitudes and behavior (i.e. the desire for social distancing of people with dementia). mental, except depression) ”.

With stigma as with other complex psychosocial issues, the sad truth remains that knowledge of the facts, while necessary, is insufficient to produce meaningful changes in attitudes or behaviors.


Source link

]]>
Scientific approach to New Year’s resolutions http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/scientific-approach-to-new-years-resolutions/ Fri, 31 Dec 2021 07:00:21 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/scientific-approach-to-new-years-resolutions/ If you’ve made a New Year’s resolution, your plot to improve yourself likely kicks off on January 1, when the hangover wears off and the quest for the “new you” begins in earnest. But if research into habit change is any indication, only about half New Year’s resolutions are likely to come out in January, […]]]>

If you’ve made a New Year’s resolution, your plot to improve yourself likely kicks off on January 1, when the hangover wears off and the quest for the “new you” begins in earnest.

But if research into habit change is any indication, only about half New Year’s resolutions are likely to come out in January, let alone last a lifetime.

As experts in positive psychology and Literature, we recommend an unconventional but more promising approach.

We call it the “resolution of the old year”.

It combines ideas from psychologists and America’s first self-improvement guru, Benjamin Franklin, who pioneered a pattern of habit change well ahead of his time.

As the “old year” approaches, you may be able to avoid the inevitable challenges that come with traditional New Year’s resolutions and achieve lasting positive changes.

A period to practice and fail

Research has highlighted two potential pitfalls with New Years resolutions.

First, if you don’t have the confidence to invest in a full-fledged endeavor, failure to achieve the goal can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Also, if you hold on to the change but perceive the progress to be too slow or inadequate, you may give up on the effort.

The resolution of the old year is different. Instead of waiting until January to start trying to change your life, you give it a try before the new year begins.

How it works?

First, identify a change you want to make in your life. Want to eat better? Move more? Save more? Now, with the days of January 1, start living your commitment. Track your progress. You might trip up and down every now and then, but here’s the thing: you’re just practicing.

If you’ve ever rehearsed for a play or performed scrums, you’ve used this kind of low-stake practice to prepare for the real thing. Such experiences give us permission to fail.

Psychologist Carol Dweck and his colleagues showed that when people see failure as the natural result of their efforts to achieve something difficult, they are more likely to persist towards the goal.

However, if people take failure as a definitive sign that they are not able, or even deserve, to succeed, failure can lead to giving up.

If you become convinced that you cannot achieve a goal, something called “learned helplessnessCan result, which means you are likely to give up the effort altogether.

Many of us have unwittingly prepared for failure with our New Year’s resolutions. On January 1, we jump straight into a new lifestyle and, unsurprisingly, slip, fall, slip again – and finally don’t. never come up.

The resolution of the old year takes the pressure off. It gives you permission to fail and even to learn from failure. You can slowly build confidence, as failures become less important, as they all occur before the official ‘start date’ of the resolution.

A gardener weeds one bed at a time

Long before he became one of America’s greatest success stories, Franklin devised a method that helped him overcome life’s inevitable failures – and might help you master your year-old resolutions.

When he was still a young man, Franklin had what he called his “daring and arduous project to achieve moral perfection.” With charming confidence, he set out to master 13 virtues, including temperance, frugality, chastity, industry, order and humility.

In a quintessentially Franklinian move, he applied a little strategy to his efforts, focusing on one virtue at a time. He likened this approach to that of a gardener who “doesn’t try to eradicate all the weeds at once, which would be beyond his reach and strength, but works on one of the beds at a time.”

In his autobiography, where he described this project in detail, Franklin did not say that he tied his project to a New Year. He also didn’t give up when he slipped once – or more than once.

“I was surprised to find myself so much more full of faults than I had imagined; but I had the satisfaction of seeing them decrease, ”Franklin wrote.

Repeated failures could discourage someone enough to abandon the business altogether. But Franklin persevered – for years. For Franklin, it was all about perspective: this effort to improve was a “project” and projects take time. He made his progress visible in a book, where he recorded his slippages. A page – perhaps only a hypothetical example – shows 16 of them related to “temperance” in a single week. (Instead of marking faults, we recommend recording successes based on the work of habit expert BJ Fogg, whose research suggests celebrating wins helps change habits.)

“A better and happier man”

Many years later, Franklin admitted he was never perfect, despite all his efforts. His final assessment, however, is worth remembering:

“But, on the whole, although I never achieved the perfection that I had been so ambitious to achieve, but was far from achieving it, yet I was, by this effort, a a better and happier man than I should have been otherwise, if I had not tempted him.

Treating self-improvement as a project without a rigid schedule worked for Franklin. In fact, his plan probably helped him be extremely successful in business, science and politics. Above all, he also found immense personal satisfaction in the business: “This little device, with the blessing of God,” he wrote, was the key to “the constant bliss of his life, until his 79th year, in which this is written.”

You can enjoy the same success as Franklin if you start on your own schedule – now, in the past year – and treat self-improvement not as a goal with a start date but as an ongoing “project.” .

It might also be helpful to remember the note Franklin addressed to himself on a virtue he coincidentally called “Resolve”: “Resolve to do what you must; do what you solve without fail.


Brand Canada is Executive Vice-Chancellor for Academic Affairs at Indiana Kokomo University and Christina downey is a professor of psychology at Indiana University.


Source link

]]>
Gladys Knight, ‘The Band’s Visit’ and Mystery Science Theater: 7 Things To Do This Week http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/gladys-knight-the-bands-visit-and-mystery-science-theater-7-things-to-do-this-week/ Wed, 29 Dec 2021 17:00:00 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/gladys-knight-the-bands-visit-and-mystery-science-theater-7-things-to-do-this-week/ As we say goodbye to 2021, some bands will be welcoming the New Year with gigs and performances. If you don’t feel like being indoors with the crowds, Oregon State Parks offers first-day hikes with guides to take you through some of the state’s best outdoor spaces. Bundle up and walk outside. Remember, COVID mandates […]]]>

As we say goodbye to 2021, some bands will be welcoming the New Year with gigs and performances. If you don’t feel like being indoors with the crowds, Oregon State Parks offers first-day hikes with guides to take you through some of the state’s best outdoor spaces. Bundle up and walk outside.

Remember, COVID mandates requiring indoor masks are still in place. Check with the sites for other COVID security requirements.

Organists Bruce Neswick and Katie Burk perform at the Trinity Music New Years concert. Photo file. The simple merchantThe simple merchant

Trinity Music’s annual New Year’s Eve concert

This annual New Years tradition is in person for the first time since 2019. Guest performers include jazz singer Jessica Israels, poet Brandt Maina, the Portland Symphonic Girlchoir, organists Bruce Neswick and Katie Burk, and Renegade Opera with the bagpiper Mark Mullaney. Warren Black of all classic radio hosts. All proceeds will go to the Trinity Food Pantry, a program that serves hundreds of food insecure Portland residents every week.

7:00 PM, Friday December 31, Trinity Episcopal Cathedral, 147 NW 19th Ave .; tickets range from $ 15 to $ 50; arts-peuples.com

Gladys Knight in a golden jacket

New Years Eve with Gladys Knight and the Oregon Symphony (Courtesy of the Oregon Symphony)

Gladys Knight with the Oregon Symphony

Empress of Soul and incisive comedian on NPR Fresh air, Gladys Knight revealed a teenage anecdote to cut it up with a punchline: “And I wasn’t taken to the ball – I worked the ball,” said Knight, whose scheduled date with the Oregon Symphony rings in 2021.

7:30 p.m. Friday, December 31, Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall, 1037 SW Broadway; tickets: $ 49 to $ 125. portland5.com

Nathan Rizzo

Silver Falls State Park

One of the parks included in the state’s list of day one hikes is Silver Falls State Park near Silverton. Oregon file photo. (Jamie Hale / Staff)Jamie Hale / Staff

Guided hikes of the first day 2022

Several Oregon state parks will host guided or self-explore hikes on January 1. Regular parking fees of $ 5 for daily use are waived at 25 parks, including Silver Falls, Cottonwood Canyon, Bullards Beach, and Champoeg. Get the full list, including meeting times and locations, at stateparks.oregon.gov

Best A&E bets

The Mystery Science Theater 3000 arrives on stage at the Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall in early January.Cody york

Mystery Science Theater 3000 Live

The critically acclaimed Emmy-nominated comedy television series Mystery Science Theater 3000 offers a live-onstage version of the show in Portland. The cast of the 2019 “Great Cheesy Movie Circus Tour” is back and includes Emily Marsh, Conor McGiffin, Nate Begle and Yvonne Freese, as well as the world’s only movie riffing robots, Tom Servo, Crow and GPC.

7 p.m. Tuesday, January 4, Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall, 1037 SW Broadway; tickets start at $ 35; portland5.com

"The group's visit" Dance

The North American Tour Company of “The Band’s Visit”.

“The group visit”

Broadway in Portland presents the critically acclaimed and award-winning live musical with music and lyrics by David Yazbek. The show is the quirky story of a group of Egyptian musicians who show up lost in a woman’s cafe in a sleepy little town and nowhere. Under the spell of the night sky, their lives are unexpectedly intertwined.

Opens at 7:30 p.m. on Tuesday January 4 and continues at various dates and times through January 9, Keller Auditorium, 222 SW Clay St .; tickets start at $ 29.50; portland5.evenue.net

“To walk in the world with this fire”

Portland artist Samuel Eisen-Meyer offers an “immersive multimedia installation that guides viewers through a meditation on the psychology and deception of inner imperialism in the United States.” The installation includes short films, light projection, large-scale paintings, sound design and 3D fabrication in a tour experience hosted by CoHo Theater.

Opens at 7 p.m. on Wednesday, Jan. 5 (sold out) and continues during theater hours until Jan. 15; at 2257 NW Raleigh St .; free, but timed tickets are required; eventbrite.com/e/marcher-le-monde-avec-ce-feu

Best A&E bets

Jacelen Pearson’s “Old Timer” is on the Oregon Society of Artists Docent show until January.

Docent group art exhibition

The Oregon Society of Artists and the Portland Art Museum docents are offering a group exhibit to kick off 2022 with paintings, digital art, pastels, drawings and other work by regional artists. Watch the show in person or online until March 2.

The 6 to 8 p.m. opening reception on Thursday, January 6 continues during gallery hours until January 26, Oregon Society of Artists, 2185 SW Park Place; free; www.osartists.org

– If you have any live or virtual events that you would like to see highlighted on OregonLive.com or in The Oregonian’s weekly print A&E section, please email your submissions to events@oregonian.com at least three weeks before the start of your event. Digital images or links to videos are helpful.

– Rosemarie Stein, events@oregonian.com


Source link

]]>
Evolutionary biology pioneer EO Wilson dies at 92 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/evolutionary-biology-pioneer-eo-wilson-dies-at-92/ Mon, 27 Dec 2021 21:02:39 +0000 http://www.populerpsikoloji.com/evolutionary-biology-pioneer-eo-wilson-dies-at-92/ “Future generations will forgive us for our horrific genocidal wars, because it will go too far down in history. They will forgive us for all the follies and misdeeds of previous generations. But they will not forgive us for having so carelessly thrown much of the rest of the life into our care. Edward Osborne […]]]>

“Future generations will forgive us for our horrific genocidal wars, because it will go too far down in history. They will forgive us for all the follies and misdeeds of previous generations. But they will not forgive us for having so carelessly thrown much of the rest of the life into our care. Edward Osborne Wilson was one of the great biologists of the 20th century, a classical naturalist drawn to wild places. “Here is a nest of the infamous fire ant.” He was the world’s foremost specialist in ant biology. But his wit and talent went far beyond insects. He was a deep thinker who developed major theories in ecology and evolution. He became an unlikely celebrity, taking center stage in two scientific controversies of the 20th century. During his career he won almost all of the major science prizes and two Pulitzer Prizes. “I would like to say a word about safeguarding biological diversity – the rest of life.” The New York Times met him in his Harvard office in March 2008 for this interview to discuss his life and how his love for science grew out of his love for the natural world. “I believe that a child is by nature a hunter. I started with a butterfly collection when I was 9 years old. And I thought I was an explorer, and I decided to lead an expedition and collect bugs. And I started it, and I never stopped. His first expeditions led to the description of hundreds of new species. His breakthroughs in the study of insect social behavior and communication have changed the way we think about ourselves. “Some people have called you modern-day Darwin. False modesty aside, how does this fit you? “Of course he, being the pioneer and a man of almost unbelievable acuity, I think he is second to none. But among the current living people, I think I am the best approach. The early part of Wilson’s career was marked by conflict and controversy. The 1950s and 1960s were turbulent years for science. The discovery in 1953 of the structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James Watson forever changed biology. Tensions arose between those in the new discipline of molecular biology and classical biologists, whose focus on whole organisms and species seemed old-fashioned. Perhaps no place has been more marked than Harvard. And Edward Wilson and James Watson clashed. “He insisted that all of that old biology needed to go away because now the future of biology lies in molecular biology. And the faster you get started, the better. And he was very rude about it. I took it very personally, because I admired this man. He was only a year older, but here was someone who had made a truly historic breakthrough. I called it the Caligula of biology. And he could do whatever he wanted, and everyone would cheer. Over time, the two eminent scientists mended the barriers, praising each other in public and sometimes appearing on television together. In the 1970s, Wilson became the center of a political storm when he launched a new discipline called sociobiology. He extended his ideas on social behavior from insects to animals and then to humans, placing himself at the center of the debate on nature versus education. “This is the fundamental principle of sociobiology. Genes for particular social behaviors exist and have been propagated by natural selection. But scientists are deeply divided over the scientific and social implications. “” She floated the dovecotes of the social sciences and, in general, of the political extreme left. Everyone had decided that the human brain is a blank slate, and that everything is determined by history and by contingency. And anyone who said there was a biologically grounded human nature shouldn’t be doing anything right. What you were doing was opening the door to racism or gender discrimination. The opposition to sociobiology at Harvard is particularly fierce. It was headed by Richard Lewontin and Steve Gould. They set out to completely discredit the sociobiology of any merit. “” We don’t know anything about why some people are more aggressive than others, some people are more enterprising, indeed why some people have more musical ability than others. There is no evidence that such individuals differ in their genes. For Wilson, the criticism took on a more concrete form at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. “My turn has come to give the conference. And this group, they rushed on stage. They took the microphone. One of the young women came up behind me, grabbed the pitcher of ice water and poured it over my head. I said to myself, this is very interesting. I think I’m going to be the only scientist to have been physically attacked in recent years for an idea. Seeing the controversy, he set out to approach it directly. “Even moderately centrist newspapers – Time magazine, for example – came to accept that this was some kind of extreme belief in the human genetic basis of behavior. So I sat down and wrote the book “On Human Nature”, which was to explain the human aspect as I saw it, including a lot of new evidence. It won a Pulitzer Prize. And it’s kind of still the crowd screaming, as they say in a football game after the opponent has made a touchdown. It was a lot less after that. Edward Osborne Wilson was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1929. Her family life was difficult. Her father was an alcoholic who ultimately committed suicide. But these difficulties were associated with a natural love of the outdoors. “My dad had jobs that took him to a lot of places, to different places in Alabama, then to Pensacola and so on. I went to something like 15 or 16 schools in 11 years of schooling. I was pretty much alone as an only child, so I had wood to myself, so to speak. And I felt like an explorer every day I went out. Wilson was blinded in one eye in a fishing accident as a child. The resulting lack of depth perception made some observations difficult. But he could hold the bugs up to his good eye. “I brought home black widows. My parents actually allowed me to breed black widow spiders in large jars on the back porch. “Were you religious when you were a boy? “Well, I was Southern Baptist, of course. And of course, I was devout, because everyone was devout, just like everyone in southern Alabama was racist. It was part of the culture that was unchallenged. When I got to college I discovered evolution and combined that with the natural rebellion of a 17 and 18 year old – I moved away from fundamentalist Protestantism. “So do you believe in God?” “” I am not an atheist, for I think it would be foolish to deny, dogmatically, the possibility of some form of higher intelligence. But religion is simply an expression of tribalism which includes the belief, the hope, the desire that this particular tribe be blessed by God. Satisfied with this explanation, I then find it much easier to speak with the tribal leaders, also known as priests, rabbis and pastors. His 2006 book, “The Creation,” was aimed specifically at Christians. “I have become very friends with evangelical leaders as a result of my call for cooperation between scientists and environmentalists to engage in saving the Earth’s biodiversity. “We have to paint the …” At the time of this interview, Wilson, 79, was busy in his lab at Harvard, performing in an episode of “Nova” on PBS and writing books. He looked forward to the publication of his first novel, a political allegory set in an anthill. Perhaps his greatest legacy is his effort to preserve the planet’s declining biodiversity. “What we have to keep in mind when considering the rest of life on Earth is that we are losing it. And that’s the part that can’t be brought back. We are destroying species and ecosystems that are millions of years old and invaluable to humanity and future generations. And we don’t know how quickly they are disappearing. How to wake up things? So I wrote an article called “Encyclopedia of Life”. And it took very quickly. A lot of people have said, yes, that’s the way to do it. Electronic encyclopedia with a website for every species of organism in the world, although it turned out that there were 100 million. The Encyclopedia of Life was launched in February 2008. It was only the latest in Wilson’s many efforts to raise awareness of the species’ extinction. “How would you like to be remembered?” “As Darwin’s successor. [laughs] Like having carried the torch, at least for a short time.


Source link

]]>